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already – уже (что-то сделано, произошло); yet – - Учебное пособие по английскому языку Владимир 2010



часто употребляются такие обстоятельства времени как: already – уже (что-то сделано, произошло); yet – уже (что-то сделано, произошло), еще не; вопрос и отрицание; just – только что (что-то произошло); never – никогда (не делал, не совершал за все это время); ever – когда-либо (за все это время)- вопросительные предложения; for (ten years) – в течении (десяти) лет; recently – недавно, за последнее время; so far – до сих пор, пока, до настоящего времени; since Friday – с пятницы( и до настоящего времени); How long have you known him? – I have known him for ten years. – Как долго/Сколько лет ты его знаешь? – Я знаю его десять лет.

grammar exercises

1. Change the sentences into Present Perfect and translate them.

        1. Students are writing a dictation.

        2. They are having tea.

        3. We are looking for more CDs with good music.

        4. Molly is translating a difficult article from German into Russian.

        5. I’m telling my friends an interesting story.

2. Complete the sentences using word in brackets.

Model: My friend….has opened … (open) a shop in the village.

        1. I ……. (not /do) my homework yet.

        2. ………. (you / send) aunt Mary a birthday card yet?

        3. Nalini ……… (not/hear) from his brother for two months.

        4. We …… (have) a lot of work to do recently.

        5. They …..(be) in France for two years.

3. Translate into English.

  1. Я никогда не видел таких прекрасных картин.

  2. Мы только что говорили с деканом о моём новом проекте.

  3. Твой друг когда-нибудь был в Волгограде?

  4. Студенты недавно успешно сдали сложный экзамен.

  5. Где вы были всё это время?

4. Make a sentence. Use the present perfect.

Model: I'm tired. (I / walk / miles) – I've walked miles.

1. Emma's computer is working now. (she / repair / it)

2. It's cooler in here now. (I / open / the window)

3. The visitors are here at last. (they / arrive)

4. Mark's car isn't blocking us in now. (he / move / it)

5. We haven't got any new videos. (we / watch / all these)

Present perfect or past simple?

5. Put in the correct verb form.

Model: I've done (I / do) all the housework. The flat is really clean now.

A young couple bought (buy) the house next door. But they didn't live there long.

        1. Our visitors (arrive). They're sitting in the garden.

        2. There's still a problem with the television. Someone (repair) it, but then it broke down again.

        3. (I / lose) my bank card. I can't find it anywhere.

        4. The match (start). United are playing well.

        5. My sister (run) away from home. But she came back two days later.

        6. (we / plant) an apple tree in the garden. Unfortunately it died.

        7. Prices (go) up. Everything is more expensive this year.

        8. (I / make) a cake. Would you like a piece?

6. Choose the best sentence a) or b).

Model: Have you heard about the woman walking across the US?

– Yes, she's reached the Rockies.

a) The walk is continuing b) The walk has finished.

1. Have you ever played beach volleyball? – Yes, we played it on holiday.

a) The holiday is still going on b) The holiday is over.

2. Did you know old Mr. Green? – No, I never met him.

a) Mr. Green is probably alive b) Mr. Green is probably dead.

3. Wayne Johnson is a great footballer. – Yes, he's scored 200 goals for United.

a) Wayne Johnson still plays for United b) Wayne Johnson has left United.

The Past Perfect Tense

Образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to have в прошедшем времени had и Participle II(-ed /III форма неправильного глагола) глагола сказуемого.

Глагол в Past Perfect обозначает:

– действие, законченное к определенному моменту в прошлом или до начала другого действия.

He had read the book by 10 o’clock yesterday.

When we came to the airport the plane had already landed.

– Употребляется в предложениях, в которых одно действие завершилось до другого действия, длящегося в прошлом.

He had read the book and was watching TV when I came.

^ POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTION

I/you/

we/they


had washed

I/you/ we/they


hadn't washed


Had

I/you/

we /they

washed?

he/she/it

he/she/it

he/she/it

washed?

часто употребляются такие обстоятельства времени как: by the time – к этому времени; already – уже; till/ until – до (какого-то времени).

grammar exercises

1. Put these sentences in the question and negative forms.

1. You had studied English before you entered the University.

2. They had arrived at the station by 6 o’clock.

3. James had finished reading the book by last Sunday.

4. I had done my lessons by the time you called me up.

5. The teacher had given the students their homework before the bell rang.

2. Read the situation and write the sentences from the words in brackets.

Model: You went to Sue’s house, but she wasn’t there.

(she/ go/ out)…. She had gone out…….

        1. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn’t the same as before. (It/ change/ a lot).

        2. I invited Ian to the partry but he couldn’t come. (He/ arrange/ to do something else).

        3. You went to the cinema last night. You got to the cinema late. (the film/ already/begun )

        4. It was nice to see Dan again after such a long time. ( I/ not/ see/ him/ for five years)

        5. I offered my parents something to eat, but they weren’t hungry. ( They/ just/ have breakfast)

3. Translate into English.

  1. Когда вы пришли, я уже перевел весь текст.

  2. К тому времени как вы позвонили, гости ещё не собрались.

  3. Вы изучали английский перед тем, как поступили на эти курсы?

  4. Дождь уже прекратился, когда мы вышли из дома.

  5. Сколько страниц этой книги твой брат прочитал к концу прошлой недели?

4. Make the questions to the underlined words.

  1. The people went home after they had finished their work.

  2. The young man has decided to buy the new vase after the old one had fallen down and broken to pieces.

  3. The lecture has begun by the time I entered the room.

The Future Perfect Tense

The Future Perfect – сложная временная форма, образующаяся при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в Future Simple (will have) и Past Participle (–ed /III форма неправильного глагола) глагола сказуемого.

Future Perfect обозначает действие, которое будет закончено до определенного момента в будущем.

By the end of the term we’ll have read four English books.

^ POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTION

I/you/

we/they

he/she

it

will have

asked

I/you

we/they

he/she

it

will not (won’t) have

asked


Will

I/you

we/they

he/she

it

have

asked?

grammar exercises

1. Put these sentences in the question and negative forms.

  1. Trevor and Laura will have lived here for four years next April.

  2. This chess game is going to last ages. They won't have finished it until midnight.

  3. I will have read this book by the time it's due back to the library.

  4. My husband will have finished his work by half past eight, so he should be home about nine.

  5. Phone me after 8 o’clock. We’ll have finished dinner by then.

2. Translate into English.

  1. 1.Моя сестра вернется домок к 10 часам. Перезвоните позднее.

  2. К концу сентября мы получим хорошую премию.

  3. Я плохо себя чувствую, но к концу надели я выздоровлю.

  4. На следующей неделе у меня будет больше времени, так как я сдам все экзамены.

  5. Когда мой папа вернется домой, он будет очень усталым.

3. Paul wants to be an artist. He's reading about a famous artist called Winston Plummer.

Winston Plummer was a great artist, who had a wonderful career. He won lots of prizes before he was twenty. By the age of twenty-five he had had his own exhibition. He was the subject of a TV documentary by the time he was thirty. By the age of thirty-five he had become world-famous. He made millions of pounds from his pictures before he was forty.

Paul is daydreaming about his own future career. What is he thinking?

Model: I hope I’ll have won lots of prizes before I'm twenty.

  1. Perhaps ……………...... my own exhibition by the age of twenty-five.

  2. I wonder if ...................................................... by the time I'm thirty.

  3. Maybe ………………………..……………. by the age of thirty-five.

  4. I hope ............................................................ by the age of forty.

4. How good is your maths? Can you work out the answers?

Model: It's quarter to six. Melanie is putting something in the oven. It needs to be in the oven for an hour and a half. When will it have cooked? It will have cooked at quarter past seven.

  1. It's seven o'clock in the evening, and Andrew is starting to write an essay. He writes one page every fifteen minutes. He plans to finish the essay at midnight. How many pages will he have written? He will have written ...... pages.

  2. It's Monday morning, and Sarah is travelling to work. It's twenty miles from her home to the office. How far will she have travelled to and from work by the time she gets home on Friday? She will have traveled .......... miles.

  3. Matthew is doing press-ups – one every two seconds. ^ How many will he have done after five minutes? He will have done ............ press-ups.

The Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) Tense

Present Perfect Continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в Present Perfect (have been, has been) и глагола-сказуемого с –ing окончанием.

Обозначает действие или состояние, которое началось в прошлом и продолжалось в течение определенного периода до момента речи и либо все ещё продолжается в этот момент, либо закончилось непосредственно перед ним.

I have been waiting for him for two hours.

– Глаголы состояния (non-continuous verbs) в Present Perfect Continuous не употребляется.

^ POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTION

I/you/we/

they

have been washing


I/you/ we/they

haven't been washing


Have


I/you/

we/ they

been

washing?

He

she/it

has been washing

he/she/

it

hasn't been washing

Has

he/she/

it

been

washing?

часто употребляются такие обстоятельства времени как: for (ten years) – в течении (десяти) лет; for a long time – на протяжении долгого времени; all day long – в течении всего дня; since Friday – с пятницы( и до настоящего времени).

grammar exercises

1. Write a question for each situation.

1. You meet Sam as he is leaving the swimming pool.

Model: You ask: (you/swim?) Have you been swimming?

2. You have just arrived to meet a friend who is waiting for you.

You ask: (you/wait/long)................................ ?

3. You meet a friend in the street. His clothes are completely wet.

You ask: (what/you/do).................................?

4. A friend of yours is now working in a supermarket.

You ask: (how long/you/work/there)....................... ?

5. The fellow student tells you about his job - he sells computers. You want to know how long.

You ask: (how long/you/sell / computers)................?

2. Translate into English.

  1. Как долго вы изучаете испанский язык?

  2. Мы живем здесь только год.

  3. Дождь идёт с раннего утра.

  4. Чем он занимается с тех пор, как мы виделись с ним в последний раз?

  5. Я пытаюсь отремонтировать компьютер на протяжении всего дня.

3. Put in the verbs. Use the present perfect continuous.

Ilona: Sorry I'm late.

Model: Emma: It's OK. … I haven't been waiting… (I / not / wait) long.

What (l)................. (you/do)?

Nelly: I've been with Mrs. King. (2)................. (she / help) me with my English.

Nelly: Your English is very good. You don't need lessons, surely.

How long (3)........................ (you / study) English?

Ilona: Er, eight years now. But my accent wasn't so good before I came to England. (4).............. (I / try) to improve it. I think (5)..................... (it / get) better lately.

Nelly: Your accent is fine, Ilona. Honestly.

Unit 10. Глагол. The Passive Voice

Глагол-сказуемое в Passive Voice (страдательный залог) показывает, что подлежащее предложения является объектом действия со стороны другого лица или предмета.

I wrote three letters yesterday/Past Simple of the Active Voice/-

Three letters were written yesterday/ the Past Simple Passive /

Времена страдательного залога образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола в соответствующем времени действительного залога и глагола- сказуемого в форме причастия прошедшего времени Participle II (-ed /III форма неправильного глагола) глагола сказуемого.

– Объект действия выражен подлежащим, а субъект действия либо совсем не упоминается, либо указан с предлогами by или with.

Football is played all over the world. / The sky was covered with clouds.

Времена Perfect Continuous и Future Continuous в страдательном залоге не употребляются.




ACTIVE

PASSIVE

Present simple:

We bake the bread here.

The bread is baked here.

Present continuous:

We are baking the bread.

The bread is being baked.

Present perfect:

We have baked the bread.

The bread has been baked.

Past simple:

We baked the bread yesterday.

The bread was baked yesterday.

Past continuous:

We were baking the bread.

The bread was being baked.

Past perfect:


We had baked the bread.

The bread had been baked.


Future simple:


To be going to:

We will bake the bread next.

We are going to bake the bread.

The bread will be baked next.


The bread is going to be baked.

Modals:

We should bake the bread soon.

The bread should be baked soon.

grammar exercises

1. Open the brackets.

1. Those magazines (return) to the library yesterday.

2. Why your home task (not/do)?

3. The children (take) to the circus this afternoon.

4. Dictionaries may not (use) at the examination.

5. This room (not/ use) for a long time.

2. Translate into English.

1. Его часто посылают за границу.

2. Телеграмма была получена вчера.

3. Когда будет переведена эта книга?

4. Кому поручили это задание?

5. Мне предложили очень интересную работу.

3. Rewrite these sentences beginning with the underlined words.

Model: Thieves robbed a woman. – A woman was robbed.

1. They may ban the film.

2. They offered Nancy a pay increase.

3. We need to correct the mistakes.

4. Someone reported that the situation was under control.

5. They are testing the new drug.

4. Each of these sentences is incorrect. Find the mistakes.

Model: Those nice glasses was break. - Those nice glasses were broken.

1. The story was written Agatha Christie.

2. Baseball do play at this stadium.

3. This shirt needs iron.

4. I cut my hair yesterday.

5. My parents divorce- themselves last year.

Unit 11.

^ КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ И СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЁН.

INDIRECT SPEECH and SEQUENCE OF TENSES

В английском языке существует закон согласования времён, который действует в сфере одной временной плоскости. Данный закон действует преимущественно в сложных предложениях с придаточным дополнительным, т.е. временная форма глагола в придаточном предложении зависит от временной формы глагола в главном предложении и определяется правилами согласования времён.

1) Если глагол в главном предложении имеет форму настоящего или будущего времени, то в придаточном предложении глагол ставится в том времени, которое требуется по смыслу.

2) Если глагол в главном предложении стоит в одном из прошедших времён, то в придаточном предложении происходит сдвиг времени в прошедшее (по сравнению с тем, которое требуется по смыслу и ситуации).

При переводе прямой речи в косвенную происходит сдвиг времён в соответствии с данной таблицей.

^ DIRECT SPEECH (прямая речь)

REPORTED SPEECH (КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ)

Present Simple (Indefinite) V-1, V-s

Past Simple (Indefinite) V-2, V-ed

Present Progressive (Continuous) am, is, are + V-ing

Past Progressive (Continuous) was, were + V-ing

Present Perfect have, has + V-3, V-ed

Past Perfect had + V-3, V-ed

Present Perfect Progressive (Continuos)

have been + V-ing

Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous)

had been + V-ing

Past Simple/Past Indefinite V-2, V-ed

Past Perfect had + V-3, V-ed

Past Progressive (Continuous)


was, were + V-ing

Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous)

had been + V-ing

Past Perfect had + V-3, V-ed

Past Perfect had + V-3, V-ed

Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous)

had been + V-ing

Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous)

Had been + V-ing

Future Simple (Indefinite) shall, will + V-1

Future-in-the-Past would + V-1

Future Progressive (Continuous) shall, will + be + V-ing

Future-in-the-Past would be + V-ing

Future Perfect shall, will+have+V-3, V-ed

Future-in-the-Past would+have+V-3,V-ed

Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous)

shall, will + have + been + V-ing

Future-in-the-Past

Would + have + been + V-ing

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